Peer and Self-assessment: A Mathematical Model to Improve Students’ Accountability in Laboratory Stations Model

Abstract views: 414 / PDF downloads: 364


  • Ana Rita Mota Universidade do Porto, Portugal
  • João B. Lopes dos Santos CFP, Departamento de Física e Astronomia Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Portugal
  • Paula Esperto Escola Secundária Poeta Joaquim Serra, Portugal
  • Isabel Coutinho Escola Secundária Poeta Joaquim Serra, Portugal


Collaborative learning, Metacognitive skills, Peer and self-assessment, Group assessment


There is an increasing interest in peer and self-assessment (P&SA) in science education due its importance in students’ performance in collaborative work and in the development of their metacognitive skills. We developed and tested an algorithm to help teachers organize the P&SA process. Collected data relative to the 8th and 11th grades were analyzed to examine the viability of this algorithm and to determine the degree of agreement between a student’s self-assessment and that of his/her peers. We found no significant differences between peer and self-assessment, which means that students have a fair perception of their contribution to the team. The data also suggest that the maturity of the students can be an important variable in the self-regulation learning and in metacognitive skills acquisition, since the correlation between self and peer assessment was more robust in the 11th grade.


Alias, M., Masek, A., & Salleh, H. (2015). Self, peer and teacher assessments in problem based learning: Are they in agreements? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 309-317.

Brooks, C. M., & Ammons, J. L. (2003). Free riding in group projects and the effects of timing, frequency, and specificity of criteria in peer assessments. Journal of Education for Business, 78(5), 268–272.

Chen, Y., & Lou, H. (2004). Students’ perceptions of peer evaluation: an expectancy perspective. Journal of Education for Business, 79(5), 275–282.

Conway, R., Kember, D., Sivan, A., & Wu, M. (1993). Peer assessment of an individual’s contribution to a group project. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 18(10), 45–46.

Falchikov N., & Goldfinch, J. (2000). Student peer assessment in higher education. A meta-analysis comparing peer and teacher marks. Review of Educational Research, 70, 287–322.

Freeman, M. (1995). Peer assessment by groups of group work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 20, 289–300.

Freeman, M., & McKenzie, J. (2002). Spark, a confidential web-based template for self and peer assessment of student teamwork: Benefits of evaluating across different subjects. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33, 551-569.

Kaufman, D. B., Felder, R. M., & Fuller, H. (2000). Accounting for individual effort in cooperative learning teams. Journal of Engineering Education, 89, 133–140.

Kaufman, J. H., & Schunn, C. D. (2011). Students’ perceptions about peer assessment for writing: Their origin and impact on revision work. Instructional Science, 39, 387-406.

Liu, N.-F., and Carless, D. (2006). Peer feedback: the learning element of peer assessment. Teaching in Higher Education, 11, 279–290.

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer Instruction: A user’s manual. Prentice-hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Michaelsen , L. K., Sweet, M., & Parmelee, D. X. (2008). Team-Based Learning: small group learning’s next big step. New York: Wiley.

Mehrdad, N., Bigdeli, S., & Ebrahimi, H. (2012). A comparative study on self, peer and teacher evaluation to evaluate clinical skills of nursing students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1847-1852.

Mota, A. R., & Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B. (2013). Reflecting understanding: Using lab stations to teach image formation. Science Scope, 37(2), 20–29.

November , A. (2012). Who Owns the Learning? Solution Tree, United Kingdom.

Sadler, P. M., & Good, E. (2006). The impact of self- and peer-grading on student learning. Educational Assessment, 11, 1–31.

Sande, J., & Llorent, G. (2014). Peer Assessment and Self-assessment: Effective Learning Tools in Higher Education. International Journal of Engineering Education, 30, 711–721.

Topping, K. J. (1998). Peer assessment between students in college and university. Review of Educational Research, 68, 249–276.

Topping, K. J., Smith, E. F., Swanson, I., & Elliot, A. (2000). Formative peer assessment of academic writing between postgraduate students. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25, 149-170.

Topping, K. J. (2009). Peer assessment. Theory Into Practice, 48, 20-27.

Wilson, J. T. (2013). Peer learning in higher education. London: Routledge.




How to Cite

Mota, A. R., dos Santos, J. B. L. ., Esperto, P., & Coutinho, I. (2019). Peer and Self-assessment: A Mathematical Model to Improve Students’ Accountability in Laboratory Stations Model. International Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education, 11(1), 7–11. Retrieved from