Investigating Teachers' Fidelity to Constructivist Chemistry Curriculum in Turkey: Congruence between Intended, Perceived and Observed Curriculum in Turkey

Keywords: Constructivism, curriculum evaluation, curriculum fidelity, secondary school chemistry curriculum

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate chemistry teachers' curriculum fidelity in Turkey. Therefore, it was investigated how intended constructivist principles in the 9th grade chemistry curriculum in 2007, have been perceived and implemented into the practice by the chemistry teachers in Turkey. A qualitative evaluative case study guided this research study, which was carried out with 23 chemistry teachers, working in the high schools in Erzurum city center and selected by convenient sampling method. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews under the guidance of the “Teacher Interview Form (TIF)” and classroom observations using the “Chemistry Class Constructivist Environment Observation Form (CCCEOF)” developed by the researchers. The interview and observation data were subjected to content analysis. The findings showed that the constructivist principles intended in the chemistry curriculum are not adequately perceived by the teachers and are put into practice in a traditional way.

References

Altinyelken Kosar, H. (2010). Curriculum change in Uganda: Teachers perspectives on the new thematic curriculum. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(2), 151-161.

Ayas, A. (1995). Fen bilimlerinde program geliştirme ve uygulama teknikleri üzerine bir uygulama: İki çağdaş yaklaşımın değerlendirilmesi [An application on curriculum development and implementation techniques in science: Evaluation of two contemporary approaches]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Hacettepe University Journal of Education Faculty] 11, 149-155.

Ayas, A. (2013). Cumhuriyet döneminde Türkiye’de kimya öğretim programı geliştirme çalışmaları [Curriculum development studies in chemistry education in Turkey during Republican Era]. M. Sözbilir (Ed.), Türkiye’de kimya eğitimi [Chemistry education in Turkey] (141-153). İstanbul: Türkiye Kimya Derneği Yayınları No: 22.

Aydın, A. (2007). Ortaöğretim kimya dersi öğretim programının uygulama sürecinin gerçekleştirilmesinde 1992’den beri uygulanan ortaöğretim kimya müfredat programının uygunluğu konusunda öğretmen görüşleri [The views of teachers in the conformity of chemistry curriculum implemented since 1992 for the realization of implementation process of secondary and high school chemistry course teaching program]. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Ahi Evran University Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty], 8(1), 223-233.

Bantwini, B.D. (2010). How teachers perceive the new curriculum reform: Lessons from a school district in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(1), 83-90.

Bay, E. (2008).Öğretmen eğitiminde yapılandırmacı program uygulamalarının etkililiğinin değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of the effectiveness of constructivist curriculum applications in teacher education]. Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi [Unpublished doctoral dissertation], Atatürk Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü [Atatürk University Institution of Social Sciences], Erzurum.

Brooks, J.G. and Brooks, M.G. (1993). In search of understanding: the case for Constructivist Classroom. Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Bümen, N. T., Çakar, A., & Yıldız, D. G. (2014). Curriculum fidelity and factors affecting fidelity in the Turkish context. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(1), 203-228.

Çalık, M. & Ayas, A. (2008).A critical review of the development of the Turkish science curriculum. In R.K. Coll & N. Taylor (Eds.) Science education in context: An international examination of context on science curricula development and implementation (p.161-176). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Chiu, M-S. & Whitebread, D. (2011). Taiwanese teachers’ implementation of a new “constructivist mathematics curriculum”: How cognitive and affective issues are addressed. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(2), 196-206.

Demircioğlu, G., Aslan, A. & Yadigaroğlu, M. (2015). Yenilenen kimya dersi öğretim programının öğretmen görüşleri ile destekli analizi [Analysis of renewed chemistry curriculum aided by teachers’ perceptions]. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi [Journal of Research in Education and Teaching], 4(1), 135-146.

Dönmez Usta, N., Ceng, Z., Kaslı, F. & Ayas, A. (2009). Evaluation of implementation of compounds units at 9th grade in the new chemistry curriculum. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 2359-2362.

Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M. & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drugs abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18(2), 237-256.

Ercan, O. (2011). Kimya dersi yeni öğretim programının uygulanmasına ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri [The opinions of chemistry teachers on application of chemistry curriculum].Türk Fen EğitimiDergisi [Journal of Turkish Science Education], 8(4), 193-204.

Fosnot, C. T. (2007).Oluşturmacılık: Teori, perspektifler ve uygulama [Constructivism: Theory, perspectives and practive]. Çeviri Editörü: S. Durmuş [Trans. Editor.: S. Durmuş] Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Furtak, E. M., Ruiz-Primo, M. A., Shemwell, J. T., Ayala, C. C., Brandon, P. R., Shavelson, R. J. & Yin, Y. (2008). On the fidelity of implementing embedded formative assessments and its relation to student learning. Applied Measurement in Education, 21(4), 360-389.

Gönen, S. & Andaç, K. (2009). Gözden geçirme stratetjisi ile desteklenmiş yapılandırmacı öğrenme yaklaşımının öğrencilerin basınç konusundaki erişilerine ve bilgilerinin kalıcılığına etkisi [The Effects of Constructivist Learning Approach Supported by Reviewing Strategy on Students’ Attainment and Retention of Their Knowledge about Pressure]. Dicle Üniversitesi Ziya Gökalp Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Dicle University Journal of Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education], 12, 28-40.

Hançer, A. H. (2006). Enhancing learning though constructivist approach in science education. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 1(2), 181-188.

Kalkan, H., Savcı, H., Şahin, M. & Özkaya, A. R. (1994). Kimya öğretmenliği eğitimi ve ortaöğretim kimya eğitiminin değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of chemistry teacher training program and secondary school chemistry education].Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi [Marmara University Atatürk Education Faculty Journal of Educational Sciences], 6, 155-160.

Klainin, (1984).The effects of an activity-based curriculum on student outcomes in chemistry in Thailand. Research in Science Education, 14(1), 213- 222.

Kimble, L. L., Yager, R.E. & Yager, S. O. (2006). Success of a professional-development model in assisting teachers to change their teaching to match the more emphasis conditions urged in the national science education standards. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 17(3), 309-322.

Kurt, S. & Yıldırım, N. (2010). Ortaöğretim 9.sınıf kimya dersi öğretim programının uygulanması ile ilgili öğretmenlerin görüşleri ve önerileri [Teachers’ suggestions and views on applying 9 grade secondary school chemistry curriculum]. Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Education Faculty], 29(1), 91-104.

Lowe, B. & Appleton, K. (2014). Surviving the implementation of a new science curriculum. Research in Science Education, 44(6), 1-26.

McCormick, R. & James, M. (1990). Curriculum evaluation in schools (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge.

McMillan, R. & Schumacher, S. (2010). Research in education: Evidence-based inquiry (7th Edition). Boston: Pearson Education.

Meriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case studs applications in education: Revised and expanded form case study research in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Mihalic, S. (2002). The importance of implementation fidelity. Emotional & Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 4(4), 83-105

MoNE (Minister of National Education) (2005). Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı, İlköğretim Fen ve Teknolojidersi (4.ve 5.sınıflar) öğretim program (4 and 5 grade Science and Technology Curriculum). Ankara: Devlet Kitapları Müdürlüğü.

MoNE (Minister of National Education) (2007). Talimve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı Ortaöğretim Kimyadersi 9.sınıf öğretim program (9 grade chemistry curriculum). Ankara: Devlet Kitapları Müdürlüğü.

MoNE (Minister of National Education) (2013). Ortaöğretim kimya dersi (9, 10, 11ve 12. sınıflar) öğretim programı (Secondary school chemistry curriculum grade 9, 10, 11 and 12). Ankara: MEB Yayınları.

Olivia, P. F. (2001). Developing the curriculum (5thEdition). United States: Priscilla McGeehon.

Ornstein, A. & Hunkins, F.P. (1998). Curriculum foundations, principles and issues (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Özmen, H. (2004). Fen öğretiminde öğrenme teorileri ve teknoloji destekli yapılandırmacı (constructivist) öğrenme [Learning theories and constructivism supported with technology in science teaching]. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 3(1). 100-111.

Park, M. & Sung, Y. (2013). Teachers’ perceptions of the resent curriculum reforms and their implementation: what can we learn from the case of Korean elementary teachers? Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 33(1), 15-33.

Roehrig, G.H. & Kruse, R. A. (2005). The role of teachers’ beliefs and knowledge in the adoption of a reform-based curriculum. School Science and Mathematics, 105(8), 412-422.

Roehrig, G.H., Kruse, R. A & Kern, A. (2007). Teacher and school characteristics and their influence on curriculum implementation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(7), 883-907.

Ryder, J., Banner, I. & Homer, M. (2014). Teachers’ experiences of science curriculum reform. School Science, 95 (352), 126-130.

Rowell, M.P. & Prophet, R. (1990). Curriculum-in-action: The “practical” dimension in the Botswana classrooms. International Journal of Educational Development, 10(1), 17-26.

Seçken, N. & Kunduz, N. (2013). 9. Sınıf kimya dersi öğretim programlarını değerlendirilmesi [An evaluation of programs of ninth grade chemistry course]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [Hacettepe University Journal of Education Faculty], Özel sayı 1, 344-358.

Sözbilir, M., Kutu, H. &Yaşar, M.D. (2012). Science education research in Turkey: A content analysis of selected features of papers published. In D. Jorde & J. Dillon (Eds.) Science Education Research and Practice in Europe: Retrospective and Prospective (pp.341-374). Rotterdam: Sense Publisher.

Sözbilir, M. &Neacşu, I. (Eds.) (2014). Alternative assessment and evaluation methods: A practical guidebook for teachers. Erzurum (Turkey): Erzurum Provincial Directory of National Education.

Şimşek, N. (2004). Yapılandırmacı öğrenme ve öğretime eleştirel bir yaklaşım [A critical approach to constructive learning and instruction]. Eğitim Bilimleri ve Uygulama [Educational Sciences & Practice], 3(5), 115-139.

Taber, K. S. (2006). Beyond constructivism: the progressive research programme into learning science. Studies in Science Educations, 42 (1), 125-184.

Uzuntiryaki, E., Boz, Y., Kirbulut, D. & Bektas, O. (2010). Do pre-service chemistry teachers reflect their beliefs about constructivism in their teaching practices? Research in Science Education, 40(3), 403-423.

Üce, M. & Sarıçayır, H. (2013). Ortaöğretim 12.sınıf kimya dersi öğreitim programının uygulanması ile ilgili kimya öğretmenlerinin görüşleri [Teacher evaluation of secondary school grade 12 chemistry curriculum implementation]. Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi [Journal of Educational Sciences], 38(38), 167-177.

Yadigaroğlu, M. & Demircioğlu, G. (2012). Kimya dersi öğretim programının uygulanmasına yönelik öğretmen görüşleri [Teachers’ views concerning the implementation of chemistry teaching program]. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi [Journal of Research in Education and Teaching], 1(4), 325-333.

Yaşar, M.D. (2012). 9.sınıf kimya öğretim programındaki yapılandırmacılığa dayalı öğelerin öğretmenler tarafından algılanışı ve uygulamasına yönelik bir inceleme: Erzurum örneği [An investigation of chemistry teachers' perceptions and implementation of constructivist principles in 9th grade chemistry curriculum: The case of Erzurum]. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi [Unpublished doctoral dissertation], Atatürk University, Educational Science Institute, Erzurum, Turkey.

Yörük, N. & Seçken, N. (2011). Cumhuriyet döneminde uygulanan kimya dersi öğretim programlarının derlenmesi [The compilation of implemented secondary school chemistry lesson curricula belonged to republican era]. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi [Balıkesir University Journal of Science Institute], 13(2), 7-34.

Wallace, C. S. & Priestley, M. (2011). Teachers’ beliefs and the mediation of curriculum innovation in Scotland: A socio-cultural perspective on professional development and change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(3).357-381.

Published
2019-12-20
How to Cite
Yaşar, M. D., & Sözbilir, M. (2019). Investigating Teachers’ Fidelity to Constructivist Chemistry Curriculum in Turkey: Congruence between Intended, Perceived and Observed Curriculum in Turkey. International Journal of Physics & Chemistry Education, 11(4), 93-104. Retrieved from http://ijpce.org/index.php/IJPCE/article/view/69